Canada gives us countless reasons to be "proud"
Canada is a country in the northern half of North America.
Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million
square kilometres (3.85 million square miles), making it the world’s second-largest country by total area and the fourth-largest country by land area.
Canada’s border with the United States is the world’s longest land border.
The majority of the country has a cold or severely cold winter climate, but southerly areas are warm in summer.
Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land territory being dominated by forest and tundra and the Rocky Mountains.
About four-fifths of the country’s population of 36 million people is urbanized and live near the southern border.
Its capital is Ottawa, its largest metropolis is Toronto; other major urban areas include Montreal, Vancouver, Calgary, Edmonton, Quebec City, Winnipeg and Hamilton.
Snow-capped mountains. Pristine lakes. Crystalline glaciers. Big-sky sunsets. “Canada” is synonymous with nature, and throughout history people have been drawn to it for its bounty – from fish and furs to gold, wheat, and lumber.
Canada is a developed country and has the tenth highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the ninth highest
ranking in the Human Development Index. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties,
quality of life, economic freedom, and education. Canada is a Commonwealth realm member of the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie,
and part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty
Organization, the G8, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum.
In 1931, Canada achieved near total independence from the United Kingdom with the Statute of Westminster 1931, and
full sovereignty was attained when the Canada Act 1982 removed the last remaining ties of legal dependence on the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
Canada is a federal parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy, with Queen Elizabeth II being the head of state.
The country is officially bilingual at the federal level. It is one of the world’s most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product
of large-scale immigration from many other countries.
We have created a society where individual rights and freedoms, compassion and diversity are core to our citizenship. But underlying that idea of Canada is the promise that we all have a chance to build a better life for ourselves and our children.
Prime Minister of Canada
Canada has been inhabited for millennia by various Aboriginal peoples.
Beginning in the 16th century, British and French claims were made on the area, with the colony of Canada first being established by the
French in 1537. As a consequence of various conflicts, the United Kingdom gained and lost territories within
British North America until it was left, in the late 18th century, with what mostly geographically comprises Canada today.
Pursuant to the British North America Act, on July 1, 1867, the colonies of Canada, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia joined to form the semi-autonomous
federal Dominion of Canada. This began an accretion of provinces and territories to the mostly self-governing Dominion to the
present ten provinces and three territories forming modern Canada.